Clear Evidence That Cannabinoids Are Useful For The Treatment of Various Medical Conditions

“There Is Now Clear Evidence That Cannabinoids Are Useful For The Treatment Of Various Medical Conditions”

By: Paul Armentano  NORML Deputy Director, August 9, 2012

 

Source: http://blog.norml.org/2012/08/09/scientific-review-there-is-now-clear-evidence-that-cannabinoids-are-useful-for-the-treatment-of-various-medical-conditions/

 

For the second time in recent months, a scientific paper published in a peer-reviewed journal has thoroughly rebutted the present Schedule I status of cannabis under US federal law, which states that the plant and its organic constituents possess a “high potential for abuse,” and that they lack “accepted medical use” and “accepted safety … under medical supervision.”

According to a just published review in the German scientific journal Deutsches Ärzteblatt International, scientific findings from over 100 controlled clinical trials involving either cannabis or its constituents provide “clear evidence that cannabinoids are useful for the treatment of various medical conditions.”

Investigators from the nova-Institute and the Hannover Medical School in Germany reviewed over 100 controlled trials assessing the safety and efficacy of cannabis and cannabinoids.

Researchers reported: “Knowledge about the therapeutic potential of cannabis products has been greatly improved by a large number of clinical trials in recent years. … There is now clear evidence that cannabinoids are useful for the treatment of various medical conditions,” including chronic neuropathy (nerve pain), multiple sclerosis, HIV/AIDS, Gilles de la Tourette syndrome, and other indications.

Regarding the safety profile of cannabis and cannabinoids, investigators determined: “The most common side effects of cannabinoids are tiredness and dizziness (in more than ten percent of patients), psychological effects, and dry mouth. Tolerance to these side effects nearly always develops within a short time. Withdrawal symptoms are hardly ever a problem in the therapeutic setting.”

Authors did express concern that cannabis could pose additional health risks for adolescents and/or pregnant or breast-feeding women, as well as individuals diagnosed with Hepatitis C, severe cardiovascular disease, addictive disorders, or those vulnerable to certain psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia.

Investigators acknowledged that cannabis dosing may adversely impact psychomotor skills. However, they noted, “Patients who take cannabinoids at a constant dosage over an extensive period of time often develop tolerance to the impairment of psychomotor performance, so that they can drive vehicles safely.”

They concluded, “No acute deaths have been described that could be unequivocally attributed solely to cannabis consumption or treatment with cannabinoids.”

This most recent paper follows the publication of a similar review, published in May in The Open Neurology Journal. In that paper, investigators with the University of California at San Diego and the University of California, Davis concluded: “Evidence is accumulating that cannabinoids may be useful medicine for certain indications. Based on evidence currently available, the (federal) Schedule I classification (of cannabis) is not tenable; it is not accurate that cannabis has no medical value, or that information on safety is lacking.

In 2011, the Obama administration — via the United States Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) — formally denied a nine-year-old administrative petition filed by NORML and a coalition of public interest organizations calling on the agency to initiate hearings to reassess the present classification of marijuana as a schedule I controlled substance. In her denial of the petition, DEA administrator Michele Leonhart alleged: “[T]here are no adequate and well-controlled studies proving (marijuana’s) efficacy; the drug is not accepted by qualified experts. … At this time, the known risks of marijuana use have not been shown to be outweighed by specific benefits in well-controlled clinical trials that scientifically evaluate safety and efficacy.”

In June, Ms. Leonhart testified before Congress that she believed that heroin and marijuana posed similar threats to the public’s health because, in her opinion, “all illegal drugs are bad.”

Coalition advocates are presently appealing the DEA’s denial of their petition in federal court.

Full text of the most recent study, “The therapeutic potential of cannabinoids,” is available online here.

Reprinted with permission from NORML.

Source: www.weedlist.com

Read more @ http://www.weedist.com/2012/08/scientific-review-there-is-now-clear-evidence-that-cannabinoids-are-useful-for-the-treatment-of-various-medical-conditions/

Red Eyes, Why?

Hello Fellas!

One of the million questions that occasionally pop to my head when it comes to use of Cannabis “Why do your eyes turn RED!?

I found this interesting piece in my research, give it a look and feel free to share more information or simply speak your mind, you are welcome to.

Red Eyes and Marijuana – Why It Occurs

The primary and most common reason is due to the THC in cannabis, whether smoked, vaporized or digested (remember combustion destroys more THC than other consumption methods). This psychoactive cannabinoid decreases blood pressure which dilates the blood vessels and increases blood flow throughout the body. The arteries in the eye-ball expand from the decreased blood pressure. These enlarged arteries are what produce the bloodshot red eye effect. It is precisely this effect on the human eye that makes cannabis an effective medicine for glaucoma. Studies in the 1970s showed marijuana, when smoked or eaten, effectively lowers intraocular pressure by about 25%, as much as standard medications.
Some people’s eyes are more easily irritated by smoke of any kind. If you’re smoking cannabis for an extended period in a poorly ventilated space and your eyes are easily irritated by smoke, you may get red eyes.
A small percentage of the population has cannabis allergies. Cannabis produces pollen and that can produce an allergic reaction in some people. However, if you have an allergy to marijuana it will be a lot more than just red eyes, such as hives, swelling, or itchy skin, etc.

Red Eyes and Marijuana – Probability Factors

Genetics: Some folks are just more pre-disposed towards red eye from using cannabis. For example, even moderately chlorinated pool water turns my eyes red in record time but cannabis almost never impacts my eyes.
Tolerance: More regular users of cannabis tend to develop resistance to red eyes versus new and infrequent users.
Strain Type: Cannabis contains a plethora of compounds, from cannabinoids to terpenoids, interacting with each other in countless ways. Some strains produce more red eye than others.
Stay Hydrated: Some believe staying hydrated helps minimize the frequency and duration of ganja induced red eye bouts. I haven’t seen conclusive evidence but staying hydrated is never a bad thing anyway.

Red Eyes and Marijuana – What to Do About It
Chemical Eye Drops: Reach for something like Visine Advanced Redness Plus Irritation Relief Eye Drops.
Artificial Tears: Don’t overuse the Visine. Try to use artificial tears when possible like Clear Eyes Natural Tears Eye Drops.
Lay Low, Ride It Out: Grab some shades or hide from the sun an ride it out for the two to three hours it may last. A nap never hurts either.
Say “Fuck It”: I get a lot of shit done every day. Yes, I like to enjoy cannabis, I have red eyes and I don’t give a fuck if others have a problem with it.

And remember Principal Brian Lewis knows!

By: Moirai

Source: http://www.weedist.com
Read more @: http://www.weedist.com/2012/07/red-eyes-and-marijuana-why-why-me-and-what-to-do-about-it/
Video from: http://www.youtube.com

The Union: The Business Behind Getting High (2007)

“…Very Entertaining, Even if You’r Not High!” Bill Maher

Hello Fellas,

After reading this review I came to conclusion that I should encourage you to watch this award winning documentary. On my way to rolling a blunt and making some pop corn, see you at The Ganga Liceo!

Summary: BC’s illegal marijuana trade industry has evolved into a business giant, dubbed by some involved as ‘The Union’, Commanding upwards of $7 billion Canadian annually. With up to 85% of ‘BC Bud’ being exported to the United States, the trade has become an international issue. Follow filmmaker Adam Scorgie as he demystified the underground market and brings to light how an industry can function while remaining illegal. Through growers, police officers, criminologists, economists, doctors, politicians and pop culture icons, Scorgie examines the cause and effect nature of the business – an industry that may be profiting more by being illegal. Written by Brett Harvey

The Union: The Business Behind Getting High is a movie about the big industry that creates and selling illegal Cannabis.Cannabis is still illegal most parts of the world,despite that cigarettes and Alcohol is taking more life’s then Cannabis. Written by Feltherre

For more details on this fine documentary.

Watch the full movie here.

I hope you enjoy!

Source:
http://www.imdb.com
http://www.youtube.com

Grass: Documentary (1999)

I want to share with you a bit of my research results.

Recently I’ve encountered a documentary that reinforces my theory of Marijuana been a threat to several industries worldwide turning it into one of the biggest taboo of all time.

I extend a warm and vivacious invitation to watch the following audio visual educational piece to this under estimated Grass.

http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0214730/

Please, educate yourselves through the voice of Woody Harrelson.

Watch full movie here.

http://www.cuevana2.tv/4713/marihuana/

Special thanks to,

Source: http://www.imdb.com
http://www.youtube.com
http://www.cuevana2.tv

5 of the Most Massive Drug Busts

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Filed in archive BAD BUSINESSIDIOTS by GERRI on DECEMBER 14, 2011

Doesn’t anybody drop acid anymore? Either that only happens at music festivals these days, or someone in the drug business has figured out an efficient way to transport large amounts of hallucinogens without letting the crazy seep into their pores. While the usual suspect (cocaine) occupies three spots on our list over the past several decades (including number one), the most recent list-worthy bust occurred just last year and involved the attempted transport of nearly 30 tons of marijuana — which is really too bad, because nobody likes a grumpy stoner.
$6.9 Billion – Cocaine — 1989

In 1989, the biggest bust in history yielded 20 tons of cocaine, which came out to a street value of about $7 billion, or five “doses” (whatever that means) for each person in the United States. Big time Mexican drug trafficker Rafael Munoz Talavera was about to make it rain on every man, woman and child, had his cohorts not been caught in their warehouse in Sylmar, an upscale residential community near the San Gabriel Mountain foothills in California. Evidence in the trial against warehouse manager Romero McTague (who received life without parole) and the other 6 men arrested in Sylmar (which did not include Munoz), showed that this bust was small potatoes in comparison to the additional 77 tons that had moved through the warehouse in previous months, during which time the DEA was planning their attack. This brought in a whopping $81 million in transportation fees alone, according to the prosecution. Munoz managed to escape jail time for Sylmar, and also remained unscathed for his alleged involvement in importing 200 total tons of cocaine between 1988-89. His reign came to an end in 1998 though, when he was murdered by a rival Mexican drug group and drifted away to his own personal powder bowl in the sky.
$4 Billion – Heroin — 1991

It’s the summer of 1991 in Hayward, California: Grunge is happening, Freddy Mercury is still alive, and no one has a clue that Steely Dan is about to spontaneously reunite. Great time for music; a not-so-great time for the heroin business. Authorities snagged nearly 1,200 pounds of China white heroin from a warehouse in Hayward, making it the largest heroin seizure in U.S. history. The estimated street value of 1,200 pounds of Mr. Brownstone came out to almost $4 billion. At the time, the DEA even said that this collection represented 5% of the world’s total yearly production. To get to it’s place in the sun, the drug traveled all the way from Thailand to Taiwan, stowed away on a ship to the Port of Oakland and hitchhiked to Hayward, only to meet its demise before it had enough time to kill a comedian.
$1 Billion – Cocaine – 1984

Coming in at number three on our list in true Blow fashion, was the 1984 raid of Sr. Pablo Escobar’s now infamous “Tranquilandia,” which was a large-scale laboratory used to process and mass-produce really good cocaine. Stowed away in the Colombian jungle, the Medellin Cartel boss lost an estimated street value of more than $1 billion when the Colombian National Police snatched up 14 tons of cocaine after getting a hot tip from the DEA. The complex, which boasted 19 total laboratories, an independent water source and electrical system, had actual dormitories for the lab workers to blow their noses and sleep off the stimulant. The Cartel also constructed eight private airstrips in the area, specifically for the transportation of their product. Apparently the DEA knows what they’re doing though, and those smarties put tracking devices on ether (which is a major chemical in processing cocaine) tanks purchased by a Medellin Cartel associate, from some chemical plant in New Jersey (shocker). Their fancy devices led them into the Colombian jungles, and the rest is Johnny Depp history.
$600 Million – Cocaine – 2007


Coke smugglers should really strive to do better work, because in 2007, 20 tons of the drug got intercepted yet again, this time from a Panamanian ship named the Gatun. Unlike most of the busts on the list, this one never made it to a warehouse, and was dubbed the largest maritime cocaine bust in U.S. history, thanks to the U.S. Coast Guard. They were just hanging out on a Sunday, patrollin’, and they caught got the Gatun ridin’ real dirty. DEA administrator Karen Tandy said that (duh), traffickers at least try to make an effort to stash their stash in secret compartments or inside other humans, but these guys “simply loaded these bales of cocaine into cargo containers on the top of the deck of this freighter. They were hiding in plain sight on the main deck.” D’oh! And to think they would have raked in nearly $600 million for this trip, had they not been so obvious.
$20 Million – Marijuana – 2010

Image Source
Finally, in true Weeds fashion, no less (because television and movies make real life more relatable, right?), authorities discovered 30 tons of weed (approximately $20 million) in a 600-yard tunnel under the California-Mexico border in November of last year. The tunnel, which came complete with rail system, lighting and ventilation, would have been more than fit to house several families from New York City’s mole people population. The space connected a warehouse in Tijuana to one in San Diego, which now explains how they sedate the beasts at the San Diego Zoo. It also explains how San Diego’s economy became so dependent on “international trade.” 30 tons of weed. That equals at least 5 male elephants, which don’t bring nearly as many repeat customers. Interestingly enough, two days prior to the bust, California constituents voted against a proposition to legalize the personal use of marijuana. To think they could have donated all that green to charity. Sigh.

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15 Things You Should Know About Marijuana

Hi Fellas,

If you are anything like me, you love infographics because they make lots of information extremely easy to read and digest. So when the team at Term Life Insurance came to me with the opportunity to work with them on a marijuana infographic I HAD to take the opportunity. So after lots of research and blunts smoked, here is an awesome marijuana infographic that shows some facts about marijuana that you probably didn’t know yet. I even learned a thing or two, this plant is even more amazing than I thought. Enjoy.

Article by: Lenny
Read more @ http://www.hailmaryjane.com/things-you-should-know-about-marijuana/#h06msbbAF4PelgGY.99

Source:
http://www.hailmaryjane.com/things-you-should-know-about-marijuana/

Diferencias entre cannabis sativa e indica

Por  el ago 04, 2012 en Cultivo

El cáñamo es una planta herbácea de la familia de las cannabáceas. La marihuana y el cáñamo son la misma planta, la “cannabis sativa” de la cual podemos encontrar múltiples variedades. La diferencia estriba tanto en el tamaño de la planta, el número de cogollos, la forma de las hojas, aroma, etc., como en la cantidad de resina y su contenido de THC (tetrahidrocanabidol) que es la sustancia psicotrópica presente en ella.

Desde el punto de vista científico (y legal), todo el cannabis es Cannabis sativa L.

En la práctica, indica y sativa son los nombres usados para distinguir cada uno de los extremos de la gama del cannabis. Hay una multitud de patrones de crecimiento, cualidades y efectos diferentes dentro de esta gama, muchos de los cuales son el resultado de la sorprendente capacidad de adaptación a su entorno del cannabis. Genéticamente, y en términos de cruce entre razas, todo el cannabis pertenece a la misma familia.

Indica

La mayoría de las variedades indica provienen del sur de Asia y del sub-continente Indio (Afganistán, Pakistán, India, Tíbet, Nepal, etc.).

Las indicas son compactas y fuertes, con cogollos densos, pesados y fragantes. Los cogollos de indica tienden a crecer en racimos, con espacios variables (conocidos como ‘espacios internodulares’) entre cada racimo.

Las indicas son las variedades de floración más rápida, generalmente con un tiempo de floración de6 a9 semanas.

Una vez comenzada la floración, las indicas no tienden a ganar altura rápidamente. De una indica se puede esperar un aumento del crecimiento vegetativo de entre el 50 y el 100% al finalizar el período de floración.

El efecto que provoca una indica está comúnmente clasificado como un ‘dejarte de piedra’, lo que significa que está más centrado en el cuerpo. Puede intensificar sensaciones físicas como el gusto, el tacto y el sonido. Tiene un efecto relajante – mental y físico – y puede resultar soporífica en dosis más altas.

Sativa

Generalmente, las sativas provienen de las zonas ecuatoriales – Tailandia, Camboya, Jamaica, México, etc.

En las mismas condiciones, las sativas crecen más que las indicas. Los cogollos de sativa tienden a crecer más que los de las indicas, ya que se desarrollan a lo largo del tallo en lugar de agruparse alrededor de los internódulos. Sin embargo, una vez secos suelen pesar menos que los de indica, debido a su menor densidad. Los cogollos de sativa también suelen tener un olor menos fuerte que el de los cogollos de las indicas, tanto en la planta como secos.

Las sativas necesitan más tiempo para florecer. Por lo general, culminarán su floración entre 9 y 12 semanas; sin embargo, necesitarán menos tiempo vegetativo ANTES de florecer que las indicas. Por lo tanto, el tiempo total necesario para las sativas es aproximadamente el mismo que para las indicas (y a veces menos, en términos de ‘horas de luz’).

Las sativas suelen continuar ganando altura al tiempo que florecen, ganando a menudo 200%, 300% o más de su altura vegetativa mientras florecen. Esto se debe a que en la zona ecuatorial no hay tanta diferencia entre las horas de luz diurna en invierno y en verano. Por lo tanto, en su entorno nativo, las sativas crecerán y florecerán al mismo tiempo. Esta es la razón por la cual los cultivadores de interior no deben permitir demasiado crecimiento vegetativo a una sativa antes de inducir la floración. Si son cultivadas a partir de clones, muchas variedades de sativa pueden florecer tan pronto como el clon eche raíces.

A pesar de su menor peso y de un tiempo potencial de floración más largo, las sativas son muy apreciadas por muchos cultivadores por su efecto ‘euforizante’, de ‘subida’; una subida que se puede caracterizar como cerebral, energética, creativa, risueña y hasta psicodélica. Es menos impactante que el efecto ‘de dejarte de piedra’ de la indica, y es menos probable que envíe a dormir al consumidor.

Fuente  Caffix Records

Read more: http://www.lamarihuana.com/cultivo/diferencias-entre-cannabis-sativa-e-indica/#ixzz2BhZE8sWO